The Hypodermic Needle Theory
Bobo Doll Experiment
Two Step Flow
Uses and Gratification Theory
Passive and Active Audience
Dyer – Fandom and Utopia
While some have suggested that fandom is a pointless pursuit of escapism, Richard Dyer suggests otherwise. Fandom is not merely a celebration of fastistic utopia, but rather an active pursuit of utopianism. Fans are creative. They form social communities, they share ideas and common values and produce political statements. For example, Star trek signposts a utopian future where racism is a distant and forgotten prejudice. Fans responded to the show with a version of slash fiction in which homophobia was also a lost discrimination. This was a clear and creative initiative which used alternative representations to point to a new future.
This leads to
Jenkins and Participatory Culture
Gramsci – Power and Hegemony
Gramsci is primarily concerned with power. As a Marxist, he believed that society was structured unfairly. The rich upper classes were an elite in society who owned the means of production. This power gave them a control over the masses who work but do not receive their fair share of wealth. Indeed, 80% of the world’s resources are controlled by only 5% of the world’s population. Gramsci was interested in how this unfair status quo is maintained and reproduced.
Hegemony is the idea that the masses are controlled not through coersion or military force, but by ideological manipulation. The Media is one of the institutions in society, along with religion, politics and education that pass on a dominant ideology to the masses of conformity and consent. Indeed, Gramsci believed that the masses were manipulated into giving their consent to the unfair capitalist system.