Year 13 – Key Concepts – Audience

Posted on Updated on

 The Hypodermic Needle Theory

Bobo Doll Experiment

Two Step Flow

Reception Theory

Uses and Gratification Theory

Passive and Active Audience

Dyer – Fandom and Utopia

While some have suggested that fandom is a pointless pursuit of escapism, Richard Dyer suggests otherwise.  Fandom is not merely a celebration of fastistic utopia, but rather an active pursuit of utopianism.  Fans are creative.  They form social communities, they share ideas and common values and produce political statements.  For example, Star trek signposts a utopian future where racism is a distant and forgotten prejudice.  Fans responded to the show with a version of slash fiction in which homophobia was also a lost discrimination.  This was a clear and creative initiative which used alternative representations to point to a new future.

This leads to

Jenkins and Participatory Culture

Gramsci – Power and Hegemony 

Gramsci is primarily concerned with power.  As a Marxist, he believed that society was structured unfairly.  The rich upper classes were an elite in society who owned the means of production.  This power gave them a control over the masses who work but do not receive their fair share of wealth.  Indeed, 80% of the world’s resources are controlled by only 5% of the world’s population.  Gramsci was interested in how this unfair status quo is maintained and reproduced.

Hegemony is the idea that the masses are controlled not through coersion or military force, but by ideological manipulation.  The Media is one of the institutions in society, along with religion, politics and education that pass on a dominant ideology to the masses of conformity and consent.  Indeed, Gramsci believed that the masses were manipulated into giving their consent to the unfair capitalist system.

Ellie and Florian’s lesson materials:


Audicen theory hand out





Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.