The Hypodermic Needle Theory
Bobo Doll Experiment
Two Step Flow
Uses and Gratification Theory
Passive and Active Audience
Dyer – Fandom and Utopia
While some have suggested that fandom is a pointless pursuit of escapism, Richard Dyer suggests otherwise. Fandom is not merely a celebration of fastistic utopia, but rather an active pursuit of utopianism. Fans are creative. They form social communities, they share ideas and common values and produce political statements. For example, Star trek signposts a utopian future where racism is a distant and forgotten prejudice. Fans responded to the show with a version of slash fiction in which homophobia was also a lost discrimination. This was a clear and creative initiative which used alternative representations to point to a new future.
This leads to
Jenkins and Participatory Culture
Gramsci – Power and Hegemony
Gramsci is primarily concerned with power. As a Marxist, he believed that society was structured unfairly. The rich upper classes were an elite in society who owned the means of production. This power gave them a control over the masses who work but do not receive their fair share of wealth. Indeed, 80% of the world’s resources are controlled by only 5% of the world’s population. Gramsci was interested in how this unfair status quo is maintained and reproduced.
Hegemony is the idea that the masses are controlled not through coersion or military force, but by ideological manipulation. The Media is one of the institutions in society, along with religion, politics and education that pass on a dominant ideology to the masses of conformity and consent. Indeed, Gramsci believed that the masses were manipulated into giving their consent to the unfair capitalist system.
There has definitely been a development of audience theory over the years. Create a timeline – either using an online timeline maker, an infographic maker or a short film – showing the development of audience theories from hyperdermic needle through to fandom and hegemony. Each theory should have a brief description with it.
Demographic – dividing the audience by jobs and social status.
Psychographic – dividing the audience by lifestyle and personality.
ABC 1 Model
This is the link to see what Channel 4 has already found:
And this goes to show that they are not the only ones to think of audience in this way:
There is some fruity language in the following video – but it explains Male Gaze well 🙂
In pairs create a detailed presentation (similar to the ‘representation of masculinity’ one above) or note sheet, covering the representation of femininity. Marks and credits will be awarded for detail and construction. You will not have to present it to the class, but Mrs B show the best ones!
Minimum requirement slides:
- Typical female
- Dominant female stereotypes
- Evolution of woman – historical contexts
- 2 x case studies (with clips)
Create a vlog summarising the key genre theorists and ideas mentioned above. It should be no more than 4 minutes long. Marks will be awarded for the quality of the editing and use of visuals.
Mulvey – Male Gaze
The Bechdel Test
The Female Gaze
Judith Butler – Queer Theory
Hebdidge and Subculture
Bell Hooks and the inconnectivity of race, class and gender
Create a ‘revision place mat’ to revise all aspects of representation theory. It should be no bigger than an A4 sheet, so it can be stuck on a desk for later help. It should have as much information as possible on it. You can use colour, text boxes and images – it should be helpful to you, but able to be shared with others.
Here are some examples…