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Year 13 – Music Video – Things to consider: Intertextuality

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Year 13 – Music videos – Things to consider: Five ‘sections’

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Most music videos, even those with storylines and a linear narrative, or those that appear to have one simple idea, have at least 5 visuals ‘stories’ which help to keep the viewer interested…




Year 12 – Theoretical Framework – Audience

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 The Hypodermic Needle Theory

Bobo Doll Experiment

Two Step Flow

Reception Theory

Uses and Gratification Theory

Passive and Active Audience

Dyer – Fandom and Utopia

While some have suggested that fandom is a pointless pursuit of escapism, Richard Dyer suggests otherwise.  Fandom is not merely a celebration of fastistic utopia, but rather an active pursuit of utopianism.  Fans are creative.  They form social communities, they share ideas and common values and produce political statements.  For example, Star trek signposts a utopian future where racism is a distant and forgotten prejudice.  Fans responded to the show with a version of slash fiction in which homophobia was also a lost discrimination.  This was a clear and creative initiative which used alternative representations to point to a new future.

This leads to

Jenkins and Participatory Culture

Gramsci – Power and Hegemony 

Gramsci is primarily concerned with power.  As a Marxist, he believed that society was structured unfairly.  The rich upper classes were an elite in society who owned the means of production.  This power gave them a control over the masses who work but do not receive their fair share of wealth.  Indeed, 80% of the world’s resources are controlled by only 5% of the world’s population.  Gramsci was interested in how this unfair status quo is maintained and reproduced.

Hegemony is the idea that the masses are controlled not through coersion or military force, but by ideological manipulation.  The Media is one of the institutions in society, along with religion, politics and education that pass on a dominant ideology to the masses of conformity and consent.  Indeed, Gramsci believed that the masses were manipulated into giving their consent to the unfair capitalist system.



There has definitely been a development of audience theory over the years.  Create a timeline – either using an online timeline maker, an infographic maker or a short film – showing the development of audience theories from hyperdermic needle through to fandom and hegemony.  Each theory should have a brief description with it.